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Does any lifeforms can make a haploid cell from any other cell without meiosis?

Does any lifeforms can make a haploid cell from any other cell without meiosis?


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Like the title says, is it possible to produce haploid cells without meiosis?


The question is a bit unclear

Can you produce haploid cells without meiosis?

The question is a bit unclear. for two reasons

  1. What do you mean by "you". You mean can we do such thing with modern technology or do you mean does it ever happen or do you does it ever happen in human cells.

  2. It is also unclear what from. Are you implicitly asking whether "you" (whatever 'you' mean in your sentence) can make a haploid cell from a diploid cell or form anything?

Answer

In this answer, I will assume that the question is

Does any lifeforms can make a haploid cell from any other cell without meiosis?

The answer is yes. Many organisms have a long haploid stage during which many mitosis occur. Haploid cells undergoing mitosis results into two haploid cells.

You might want to read more about life-cycle (wikipedia), especially the sections on haplontic life-cycles and haplo-diplontic life cycles.


What Is The Difference Between Haploid And Diploid Cells?

We explain that what is the difference between haploid and diploid cells? All the living creatures are formed from cells. A cell is considered the basic unit of operation of each organism. Each of these comes from a cell that existed before the first and these in turn will be followed by their daughter cells, to which they will transmit the genetic material they possess. This genetic material is called a genome. Cells according to the chromosomes in their nuclei are divided into haploid cells and diploid cells. Haploid organisms are those that only have one set of chromosomes, that is, half the usual number of chromosomes. Instead, diploids possess both pairs of chromosomes.


What is Mitosis &ndash The equational division

The cell grows and prepares itself for the mitotic division in its interphase. This involves duplication of centrosomes, chromosomes and other cell organelles. The chromosomes duplicate and form sister chromatids which are joint in the centre via centromeres. These chromatids will split during mitosis and two daughter cells will get one each. This replication and equal division of chromosomes is the reason for the term &lsquoequational division&rsquo.

  • Prophase &ndash The chromatin begins to condense and the centrioles move towards the opposite ends. The microtubule fibers cross the cell to form mitotic spindle.
  • Prometaphase &ndash It begins with the dissolution of nuclear membrane. Proteins attach to the centromeres and form Kinetochores and the fibers attach to them. The kinetochores are one per chromatid. They are at the center of chromosomes. Once attached, the chromosomes start to move towards the center.
  • Metaphase &ndash The spindle fibers help in aligning the chromosomes in a straight line at the centre of the cell. This line is called the metaphase plate. Such an alignment helps in proper separation of chromosomes and ensures that each daughter cell gets one copy of the chromosomes.
  • Anaphase &ndash In this phase, the chromatids separate at the kinetochore. After separation they begin moving to opposite ends. The movement is a result of kinetochore action along the fibers and the physical interaction of the polar microtubules.
  • Telophase &ndash The chromosomes reach the opposite ends and expand. Formation of nuclear membrane also begins. Finally the spindle fibers disappear and cytokinesis begins.
  • Cytokinesis &ndash This procedure is the separation of the two daughter cells. A fiber ring made up of actin (protein) forms around the centre of the cell and pinches the cell to make it split into two diploid (46 chromosomes) daughter cells.

Stages of Mitosis (Photo Credit : Ali Zifan / Wikimedia Commons)


What is Diploid?

A diploid cell contains two sets of chromosomes: one is maternal while the other is paternal. Mitosis is the type of cell division that produces diploid cells. During mitosis, the parent nucleus divides into two daughter nuclei, which are genetically identical. Hence, each daughter nucleus receives the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. After the division of the nucleus, the entire cell divides. Since this process needs to take place without any error, all the chromosomes replicate during the interphase. Then the sister chromatids separate into each pole of the cell during mitosis.

Figure 02: Production of Diploid Cells

Diploid cells play a very important role in the genetic stability of diploid organisms. Especially, these daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell. In addition, they carry the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is the way how they ensure the genetic stability of populations during the inheritance. The growth of the body takes place due to the continuous increase in the number of diploid cells. Thus, this is the basis of growth in all multicellular organisms. Furthermore, cells continuously die, and they need to be replaced. And, it can be done only by diploid cells. Also, some animals regenerate their body parts. It too is possible only by the formation of many diploid cells.


Mei·o·sis

The process of nuclear division whereby cells divide without replicating chromosomes, producing mature eggs and sperm with a haploid number of chromosomes. Meisosis is a type of cell division required for sexual reproduction, which consists of two nuclear divisions:
(1) In the first division, the chromosomes undergo recombination, forming different genetics in each daughter gamete&mdasheach of which has a full (diploid) complement of chromosomes&mdashwhich is essentially what occurs in mitosis
(2) In the second division, the diploid complement is reduced to a haploid number.

The resulting cells contain one part of each pair of homologous chromosomes, which allows the haploid daughter cell from the mother (ovum) to combine with a haploid daughter cell from the father (sperm).


In cultivated tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum), reduction to diploidy (dihaploidy) allows for hybridization to diploids and introgression breeding and may facilitate the production of inbreds. Pollination with haploid inducers (HIs) yields maternal dihaploids, as well as triploid and tetraploid hybrids. Dihaploids may result from parthenogenesis, entailing the development of embryos from unfertilized eggs, or genome elimination, entailing missegregation and the loss of paternal chromosomes. A sign of genome elimination is the occasional persistence of HI DNA in some dihaploids. We characterized the genomes of 919 putative dihaploids and 134 hybrids produced by pollinating tetraploid clones with three HIs: IVP35, IVP101, and PL-4. Whole-chromosome or segmental aneuploidy was observed in 76 dihaploids, with karyotypes ranging from 2n = 2x − 1 = 23 to 2n = 2x + 3 = 27. Of the additional chromosomes in 74 aneuploids, 66 were from the non-inducer parent and 8 from the inducer parent. Overall, we detected full or partial chromosomes from the HI parent in 0.87% of the dihaploids, irrespective of parental genotypes. Chromosomal breaks commonly affected the paternal genome in the dihaploid and tetraploid progeny, but not in the triploid progeny, correlating instability to sperm ploidy and to haploid induction. The residual HI DNA discovered in the progeny is consistent with genome elimination as the mechanism of haploid induction.

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Diploid and Haploid Cells

Diploid and haploid cells are involved in sexual reproduction of higher eukaryotic organisms. The following BiologyWise article will cover some information related to the diploid and haploid cells.

Diploid and haploid cells are involved in sexual reproduction of higher eukaryotic organisms. The following BiologyWise article will cover some information related to the diploid and haploid cells.

In a biological cell, the number of complete chromosomal sets is called ploidy. The somatic cells of the human body are diploid in humans. However, the sex cells, that is, sperms and egg are haploid. In certain plants, amphibians, reptiles, and insect species, one may see tertaploidy (four set of chromosomes). So what are these diploid and haploid cells? If you are searching for answers to these questions, then the following paragraphs will help answer your queries.

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The sex cells or gametes contain haploid cells which means that these cells have one set of chromosomes, that is, 23 chromosomes. There are only 23 chromosomes in the human egg and 23 chromosomes in the human sperm. These cells are formed after they go through a special cell division called meiosis. Therefore, the progeny inherits one set of chromosome from the mother and one set from the father. After fertilization, they form a diploid zygote. This diploid zygote develops into a diploid species.

Diploid cells have two homologous copies of each chromosome inherited from the mother and father. All mammals are organisms of this type, with the exception of a few species. There are 46 chromosomes in human diploid cells and the human haploid cells have 23 chromosomes. The diploid cells are indicated by 2n = 2x and haploid cells are indicated by n, where n = number of chromosomes and x = monoploid number.

The gametes from diploid parents undergo meiosis, and fertilization of haploid egg and sperm occurs. This forms a diploid zygote that contains maternal chromosome and paternal chromosome. This diploid zygote undergoes mitosis that leads to the formation of a diploid organism.

Definition: These cells contain a complete set (or 2n) of chromosomes.
Cell Division and Growth: Haploid cells from the mother and father, during the process of reproduction fertilize to form a diploid zygote. This zygote undergoes mitosis to produce more diploid cells.
Examples of Organisms: Humans and almost all mammals are diploid organisms.

Definition: Haploid cells contain half the number of chromosomes (or n) in the nucleus. That is they consist of one set of chromosomes unlike the diploid, which contain two sets.
Cell Division and Growth: Haploid cells are formed after the process of meiosis, a type of cell division where the diploid cells divide to form haploid germ cells.
Examples of Organisms: Yeast and fungi are permanently haploid. Other organisms like male bees, wasps, and ants are haploid organisms.

It is important to note that most of the meiotic organisms spend some portion of their life as a haploid cell and then as a diploid.

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Scientists generate a new type of human stem cell that has half a genome

Scientists have succeeded in generating a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome, instead of the two copies typically found in normal stem cells. These are the first human cells that are known to be capable of cell division with just one copy of the parent cell's genome. The scientists, from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF), reported their findings in the journal Nature. Since the stem cells were a genetic match to the egg cell donor, they could also be used to develop cell-based therapies for diseases such as blindness, diabetes, or other conditions in which genetically identical cells offer a therapeutic advantage. Because their genetic content is equivalent to germ cells, they might also be useful for reproductive purposes.

Scientists from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF) have succeeded in generating a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome, instead of the two copies typically found in normal stem cells. The scientists reported their findings today in the journal Nature.

The stem cells described in this paper are the first human cells that are known to be capable of cell division with just one copy of the parent cell's genome.

Human cells are considered 'diploid' because they inherit two sets of chromosomes, 46 in total, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. The only exceptions are reproductive (egg and sperm) cells, known as 'haploid' cells because they contain a single set of 23 chromosomes. These haploid cells cannot divide to make more eggs and sperm.

Previous efforts to generate embryonic stem cells using human egg cells had resulted in diploid stem cells. In this study, the scientists triggered unfertilized human egg cells into dividing. They then highlighted the DNA with a fluorescent dye and isolated the haploid stem cells, which were scattered among the more populous diploid cells.

The researchers showed that these haploid stem cells were pluripotent -- meaning they were able to differentiate into many other cell types, including nerve, heart, and pancreatic cells -- while retaining a single set of chromosomes.

"This study has given us a new type of human stem cell that will have an important impact on human genetic and medical research," said Nissim Benvenisty, MD, PhD, Director of the Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and principal co-author of the study. "These cells will provide researchers with a novel tool for improving our understanding of human development, and the reasons why we reproduce sexually, instead of from a single parent."

The researchers were also able to show that by virtue of having just a single copy of a gene to target, haploid human cells may constitute a powerful tool for genetic screens. Being able to affect single-copy genes in haploid human stem cells has the potential to facilitate genetic analysis in biomedical fields such as cancer research, precision and regenerative medicine.

"One of the greatest advantages of using haploid human cells is that it is much easier to edit their genes," explained Ido Sagi, the PhD student who led the research at the Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In diploid cells, detecting the biological effects of a single-copy mutation is difficult, because the other copy is normal and serves as "backup."

Since the stem cells described in this study were a genetic match to the egg cell donor, they could also be used to develop cell-based therapies for diseases such as blindness, diabetes, or other conditions in which genetically identical cells offer a therapeutic advantage. Because their genetic content is equivalent to germ cells, they might also be useful for reproductive purposes.

The research, supported by The New York Stem Cell Foundation, the New York State Stem Cell Science Program, and by the Azrieli Foundation, underscores the importance of private philanthropy in advancing cutting-edge science.


Non-disjunction of Human Autosomes

If the non-sex chromosomes (autosomes) fail to separate properly, the results are usually fatal and the pregnancy is not carried out. When autosomal non-disjunctions do lead to birth, the individual will carry a third chromosome. Trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome. Trisomy 13 results in Patau syndrome. Trisomy 18 leads to Edward's syndrome. Other more severe chromosomal abnormalities that are rarely carried to term include extra copies of chromosomes 15, 16, and 22.

Deborah Meister is a biologist in California who has been writing about science and nature since 2010. Her articles appear on eHow and Answerbag. Meister received her Bachelor of Science in biology from California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, where she concentrated her studies in field and wildlife biology and botany.